Історія легалізації канабісу у світі
Posted by admin on 26.02.2024

The first mentions of the cultivation of cannabis by mankind date back to 4000 BC. This plant has been used for thousands of years as a medicine, as a source of food, fiber, oil and paper.

The history of mankind’s interrelations with cannabis has always been influenced by various cultural, social and local trends. Cannabis was used to treat various diseases in ancient China and India. Cannabis was used in the treatment of constipation, malaria, rheumatic pains and women’s ailments. The one spread to Africa and Arab countries in the Middle Ages, where it was used mostly in medicine, as well as in cultural and religious rituals. Marijuana was first used as a pain reliever in Ancient Greece. Cannabis spread to Europe and America in the 15th century, where its use became especially popular among doctors and artists.

Cannabis in the 20th century: from medical uses to prohibitions

At the beginning of the 20th century, there was a rapid growth in the consumption of cannabis, including due to its recreational properties. At the same time, despite its great popularity, cannabis began to be banned en masse. It all started with the international opium convention signed in 1912. Initial control of the circulation of hard drugs and cannabis was introduced between the participating countries: Germany, Prussia, the Russian Empire, Great Britain, the Netherlands and many others. Marijuana was allowed to be produced and used only for medical purposes.

During the 1930s, an anti-marijuana campaign arose in the United States. The cannabis tax law was introduced in 1937.

At the same time, the popularity of hemp continued to grow in industry, for example for the production of ropes, shoes and clothing. In 1942, Henry Ford creates an experimental body made of hemp, which turned out to be 10 times stronger than steel of the same thickness. Hemp biodiesel was supposed to be the fuel for the car.

In the 1960s and 1970s, marijuana became especially popular among the counterculture youth, who became its main consumers. It becomes a kind of symbol of the hippie movement, as well as musical and artistic self-expression.

During this period, cannabis becomes the object of prohibition in many countries due to the danger of abuse and its psychotropic properties. The world history of marijuana takes a new turn in March 1961. The UN adopted the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. According to the cannabis convention, cannabis resin, cannabis extracts and tinctures were included in the list of narcotic drugs. The signatory countries were obliged to strengthen control over the cultivation of the plant, and to completely stop its use for purposes other than medical and scientific. Cultivation of industrial varieties of cannabis did not fall under the ban.

Legal evolution of cannabis legalization

way of cannabis legalization

Many countries began the process of legalizing cannabis for medical and recreational purposes already at the end of the 20th century. It was an example of breaking traditional stereotypes.

Legal access to herbal cannabis and its use for medical purposes under the supervision of a doctor was first allowed in the state of California (USA) in 1996. In 2001, Canada became the second country in the world to legalize the use of cannabis for medical purposes. Since October 17, 2018, the use of cannabis for medical purposes has been allowed.

On December 10, 2013, the Uruguayan Senate passed a law on the complete decriminalization of the cultivation, sale, purchase and use of marijuana. Uruguay became the first country in the world to fully legalize cannabis.

In December 2020, the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs removed medical cannabis and all its derivatives from the list of critically dangerous drugs, but about 25 countries still voted against this initiative.

Currently, the world market of cannabis, including for medical purposes, is in the process of rapid development. However, this development is not uniform due to different legal environments and mixed public attitudes.

In contrast to the legalization of recreational use of cannabis, more and more countries allow its medical use every year. In the last 5 years, about 20 countries in Europe (Greece, Estonia, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Macedonia, Germany, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Croatia), North and South America (Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, Chile) and other countries (Australia, Philippines, Jamaica) have legalized cannabis and cannabinoids for medical purposes.

Legalization of cannabis in the world

Some countries, such as Canada and the US, have adopted fully regulated frameworks that allow the cultivation, consumption and retail distribution of various cannabis-based products. So in South Africa, it is legally allowed to grow hemp, but not legalized retail sales.

In general, despite the slow changes, the world is witnessing the liberalization of the legal framework of international documents regarding the circulation of cannabis compounds and cannabinoids for medical purposes and the decriminalization of their use. Such drugs and preparations are gradually becoming available to patients in different countries.

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